ABORIGINAL PEOPLE REMAIN THE MOST VULNERABLE SECTORS OF THE SOCIETY

AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL PEOPLE

Aboriginal people have occupied Australia for at least 60 000 years and they had once lived under their own rules. In 1788 British occupation of Australia began. In 1889 the government resident’s reports on the Northern Territory 'After careful inquiry I am of the opinion that this is the attitude of the aborigines towards Europeans: Entrance into their country is an act of invasion. It is a declaration of war, and they will halt at no opportunity of attacking the white invaders.' Aboriginal people fought hard to defend their land; however, spears and boomerangs proved no match for gunfire. Thousands of Aboriginal people were brutally massacred; even more died from introduced disease and sickness. Since the invasion of Australia, Aboriginal people resisted the colonisation of their land. The settlers pushed Aboriginal people off the fertile lands into controlled settlements; and justified their actions by a belief of their superiority. Inaccessible and unwanted lands were given ownership to Aboriginal people through the land rights act 1976.

The Australian Aboriginal communities remain the most vulnerable sectors of the society throughout Australia. The Australian government still refuses to acknowledge Aboriginal people as the first inhabitants of Australia through its constitution. The Australia’s injustice was systematically engineered by the power elites to make sure that Aboriginal communities won't progress to have knowledge, in order to control Aboriginal people’s resources freely. It is very apparent that at each historical point in time, Aboriginal communities have suffered from a deep rooted distrust of giving practical effect to their rights, and the idea of justice. Among Australia's elite today, there is a habit of blaming Aboriginal communities for their harsh lifestyle in order to hide Australia’s injustice. The lack of justice is affecting all citizens; it is especially affecting the white Australians ethically. This deficit of justice has impacted the Aboriginal communities adversely throughout many generations. Most importantly, this phenomenon has been manifested not only during the British colonization, but also in the present.

A historic national referendum was took place in 1967 by the Aboriginal communities’ and their supporters’ hard work and determination. The majority of Australians (91%) voted ‘Yes’ to amend the constitution to give power to the federal government to make special laws on Aboriginal affairs. The Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 was a fundamental piece of social reform much needed to solve land disputes. This act was the first attempt by an Australian government to legally recognise the Aboriginal people’s land ownership. The land rights act has provided land for many Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory and enabled them to re-establish their cultural identity. When the Act was passed; inaccessible and unwanted lands became Aboriginal land. The only land able to be claimed is unalienated Crown land – land that no-one else is using. As a result of an amendment to the Aboriginal land rights act by the Hawke Government, no more land claims could be lodged after June 30 1997.

Establishment of Land Councils: The Land Rights Act established the Northern Land Council and Central Land Council. The Land Councils are representative bodies of elected Aboriginal people. The councils determine policies and employ expert legal, anthropological and land management staff to assist Aboriginal people in the claiming and management of their land, the protection of their sacred sites and the financial management of income received under the Act. The Land Rights Act sets out how exploration and mining must be done on Aboriginal land. All mining companies must provide details of their plan and a land council must consult with the traditional landowners. Traditional owners have two years to make a decision. If traditional owners say no, the mining companies will be blocked for five years, unless the land council applies to remove this block. If traditional owners say yes, the mining company and traditional owners must make an agreement about the exploration. 

Allocation of the funds: All profits from mining and other land uses are held in trust by land council for traditional owners. Land council must pay profits to traditional owners within six months of receiving the money, generally pays to royalty associations which have members. When a royalty association distributes money, it must record all payment details. All royalty associations must report the names of people who receive payments, and the dates, amounts and purposes of payments. The land rights act also established the Aboriginals Benefit Account (ABA). Payments are made to the ABA based on mining on Aboriginal land. Around 40% of the ABA money has been used to fund the land councils, 30% goes to the areas affected by mining, and the balance is for the benefit of Aboriginals living in the Northern Territory, community grants and administration of the ABA. The ABA Advisory Committee advises the Minister how to use the balance of funds for the benefit of Aboriginals living in the Northern Territory.

CANADIAN ABORIGINAL PEOPLE

Taiaiake Alfred is a Kahnawake Mohawk educator and writer and the founding director of the University of Victoria's Indigenous Governance Program. He accuses those celebrating the 400th birthday of America have been turning a blind eye to the genocide of the continent's native people. 'It's hard for a native person to be anything but shocked and saddened to the core by the effrontery of it all. In essence, a surreptitious celebration of the conquest of our homeland and the destruction of our people in the service of imperialism and the expansion of the white race. It marks the era that saw indigenous peoples ravaged by diseases introduced by European settlers; on average, Aboriginal communities lost 75 per cent of their populations, and the dispossession of their homelands by fraud and deceit - not a single treaty entered into by the English Crown or the US has been honoured by the settlers.' Unsolved Canadian Aboriginal people's land Title issues continue to create conflict with the Western settlers. Many generations have passed, yet not a single treaty has been renegotiated in a meaningful way. Treaties were no more than a rubber stamp for legalising the stolen lands. Most of the lands are without any treaty; notably, Canada has refused to sign the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People. 

Canadian Aboriginal people's problem is caused by the illegal occupation of the land by the Western settlers. They have failed to solve the issue of the Aboriginal peoples' rights to own and use their lands and resources as they see fit. However, Aboriginal Title was confirmed in 1997 by the Supreme Court of Canada in B.C. (Delgamuukw v. B.C.). In Canada where only a tiny portion of the land is under treaty. The Aboriginal People’s land rights issues have been causing grievances due to the white supremacy that went with colonisation. The Western settlers cheated Aboriginal people in early treaties by obtaining valuable lands for apples and eggs. As Aboriginal protesters frequently state: there can be "No Justice on Stolen Land" There has been widespread duplicity of settlers who have refused to do what is right.  The Canadian government systematically imposing a devious and destructive tactics to divide and conquer Aboriginal people to achieves its interests. Turning Aboriginals against Aboriginals by offering unacceptable deals, luring some poor Aboriginals to accept bribes, and jailing others under mysteries lawsuits for standing up for their ownrights.

Saul Terry was an artist and in 1978 he produced a rock painting as a protest against the Canadian government. Chief Terry believes that the St'át'imc people have the right to benefit from their resources instead of suffering third world living conditions. In 1998 he made a notable statement rejecting the treaty process to achieve justice: 'We are being asked to give our consent to eradicating or renouncing that we are distinct Peoples, with distinct identifiable territories, with our own governing systems, with our own distinct languages and histories. We are being asked to use our power of consent to deny to our future generations the benefits of Title from their homelands. The traditional leaderships have been usurped by neocolonial leaderships that are working with the settler governments to bring this aberration of settlement to a final conclusion. This is not self determination, this is permission to be self administering Canadian laws and systems.' 

In 1763 the British Crown issued The Royal Proclamation, a document that recognised Aboriginal title during the Western settlement. The Proclamation states that ownership over North America is issued to King George III, but that Aboriginal title exists and can only be extinguished by treaty with the Crown. The Proclamation specifies that Aboriginal land can only be sold or ceded to the Crown, and not directly to settlers. From the 18th - 20th centuries, the Crown and theleaders of Aboriginal people signed treaties throughout of Canada to resolve issues of outstanding Aboriginal title. These treaties set out agreements about the limitations of Aboriginal rights and title. Crown representatives interpreted these treaties as a “blanket extinguishment” of Aboriginal title. However, many have argued that at the time the treaties were negotiated, Aboriginal signatories did not understand the treaties as limiting or extinguishing their title. The Supreme Court would later confirm that treaties should be interpreted with the Aboriginal People’s interests in mind (Simon v the Queen 1985).

The Australian and the Canadian governments would not give adequate land rights to Aboriginal people that easily; if they do it defeats the purpose of invading others’ homelands to have more resources. Australian and Canadian governments refuses to give adequate land ownership to Aboriginal people, in order to control the Aboriginal people's resources. This tactic allows the Canadian and Australian governments to have full control of the money profited from the sale of Aboriginal people's resources. It is all about money and ruling others. The Western governments have created Israel based on the history, and the circumstances of the Jews. However, they have refused do the same for Aboriginal people of Australia, America, Canada and New Zealand. We have enough tangible evidence to prove that Aboriginal people of Australasia and North America were the first inhabitants of Australasia and North America more than anyone could ever prove that Israel belongs to the Jews. Clearly, it was easier for the Westerners to create a country for the Jews on others’ homeland to have a Jewish state as “the representatives of the West”, in order to control the Middle East. The same people who acknowledge the Jewish state have refused to acknowledge Aboriginal people in their homeland. It is nothing but a double standard of the Five Eyes. Can both freshwater and saltwater flow from the same spring? Obviously, the Western countries have an ulterior motive to promote democracy in the developing countries. 

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